​​​The first Catholic school in Brisbane opened in 1845. It was run by two lay teachers, but in later years, Catholic religious order (priests, sisters and brothers) opened and ran schools, usually under the structure of the local parish. During the 1960s and 1970s, major changes occurred in the organisation of Catholic education in Australia. With the financial support of federal and state governments, Catholic schools formed into systems under the oversight of diocesan bishops.

In the Archdiocese of Brisbane, the Archbishop has responsibility for Catholic education, assisted by the Catholic Edu​cation Council which makes recommendations about educational policies and priorities. The delivery of services, programs and resources in schools in the responsibility of Brisbane Catholic Education (BCE), headed by its Executive Director.

Schools are organised into clusters (generally based on geographical areas) for the most efficient management of service delivery.​